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Flu Repentant Magdalen, ca. Massachusetts, museum purchase. Mother and Child, vltax front, Spanish. Catalan, 12th century. Fresco detail Picasso's activities in occupied Paris, and his conduct vis-a-vis the Occupation regime, have been the subject of much conjecture, supporters at one end of the spectrum trying to make of him a Resistance hero and critics at the other attempting to tar his reputation with accusations of collabora- tion. Although Picasso's biography during the Occupation still remains an incomplete mosaic, based on scattered documentation and often secondhand reports, an overall picture has begun to emerge.

It provides the image of an artist who tried to survive as best he could in order to continue his work. Picasso remained active in certain social and cultural circles, but attempted to keep a low profile to avoid attracting attention from those authorities in whose eyes he was a degenerate, foreign art i si linked more than any other figure to subversive, even "Jewish" factions of modern art Picasso lived under the oppressive weight of German sin veillance, manifested most blatantly by occasional searches of his studio bv Nazi soldiers.

He was even summoned like other citizens to register for the Service de travail obligatoire STO , which could have resulted in his transfer to German for work as a laborer. In general, however, he sought to heed the advice of his friend Andre-Louis Dubois and try to "remain invisible. A look at the entertainment pages of a wartime newspaper such as Comoedia, for example, reveals just how lively the cultural world remained, with numerous concerts, theatrical presentations, art exhibitions, and films playing at an one time. The artistic content was decidedlv conservative, and the criticism that accompanied it marked!

Picasso's role in this cultural scene obviously diminished from prewar levels, but remained significant. Books about him continued to appear, despite stringent censorship by the Germans, including Picasso: Seize peintures , with text by Robert Desnos, which came out late in , and the second volume of Christian Zervos's catalogue raisonne, which appeared in Picasso provided illustrations to several books of poetry and essays published during the war, such as Georges Hugnet's La Chevre-Feuille Paris, and Robert Desnos's Contree Paris, To the underground surrealist publication La Main a plume, he supplied financial support, illustrations, and a photograph of Head of a Bull for the cover of the summer issue.

The dealer Martin Fabiani had taken over plans for the publication of Picasso's illustrations to Buffon's Histoire naturelle after Vollard's death in , and managed to bring this famous project to fruition in Picasso also published the occasional print, as with the Galerie Louise Leiris edition of Combat in the Arena in cat. Works by Picasso came up at public auction, sometimes fetching huge prices, and con- trary to what is often reported, paintings by Picasso frequently appeared in exhibitions in wartime Paris. Moreover, Picasso's name fre- quently appeared in the art press, most often as a target for reactionary diatribes by collaborationist critics but occasionally in more positive invoca- tions of his work as a standard of achievement.

In his private life, Picasso also was far from reclusive. Sabartes and Brassai provide vivid accounts of the many visitors to Picasso's studio. He dined with friends almost every day at his favorite restaurants, Le Catalan in the same street as his studio and the nearby Le Savoyard.

He was visited frequently by expatriate Spaniards, and his circle of friends and acquaintances included many of the most prominent writers, poets, and cultural figures of the day, some of them active to varying degrees in the Resistance movement, and some of them, like Jean Cocteau, collaborators. The cast of partic- ipants for the reading of Picasso's play Le De'sir attrape par la queue in March , and the audi- ence that turned out to listen, is a who's who of the Parisian art and literary worlds. With the help of friends he was able to accomplish some unlikely Occupation-era feats, such as the casting into bronze of several large sculptures at a time when bronze was not only in short supply but also was confiscated by the Germans as metal to support their war industry.

He felt direct, personal dangers posed by the Occupation. He was summoned, for example, to reveal to German officials the contents of his bank vault. Francoise Gilot and Andre-Louis Dubois reported that they witnessed some of these visits, when searches were made of the studio and works damaged. Gilot tells of repeated German harass- ment under the pretext of searches for the sculptor Jacques Lipchitz. And while Picasso himself was not always reliable about such details, he told one interviewer just after the liberation of Paris that the last German visitation had been only weeks before.

And Picasso's former friend Maurice de Vlaminck, in his famous article vilifying Picasso in the 6 June 1! Such attacks, however, may have made him uneasy over the safety of his mistress Dora Maar, who is said to have been half Jewish. In the politically complex position that Picasso occupied in wartime Paris, might such pressures have caused him to exercise what influence he had for self protection?

There is little doubt that, on certain occasions, one authority or another stepped forward to assist him. The threatened seizure of his property by the Spanish government passed with- out any known explanation. In the case of the even more consequential summons by the STO, we again have no record of how Picasso was able to avoid complying, although possibly his age - in he was over the sixty-year-limit placed on workers — had much to do with it. Picasso's friend Maurice Toesca, who worked in the office of the prefecture, assisted with the renewal of his identity papers when Picasso wanted to avoid alerting the Germans and the Spanish embass b following normal procedures, but loesca was powerless at higher bureaucratic levels.

And Picasso also was on speaking terms with the two German officers Ernst Jiinger and Gerhard Heller, both cultured men who paid unwelcome but unavoidable visits to Picasso's studio. Picasso always "kept his dignity," as Zervos later put it. The perception of compromise, however, fueled rumors of collaboration, lending a note of credibility to the old notion that Picasso's good friends in the Communist Party such as Aragon and Eluard later recruited him as a member and pushed him into the epuration proceedings parti to erase any possible confusion over his wartime con tacts. Picasso was a survivor.

To survive was to work, which to him was all important, and this sheer determina- tion took on for fellow artists and friends in Pans an inspiring heroic value, a symbolism that spread alter the Liberation to a much broader realm. NASII have ended up doubting our chances of survival," adding that his example warranted the thanks of all the intellectuals and artists of France. To correct inflated reports of Picasso's involvement with the Resistance, Zervos wrote to Alfred Barr: Everything that has been recounted is bad journal- ism and for the most part false.

The anecdotes are false. The participation of Picasso in the Resistance is false. Picasso simply preserved his dignity during the Occupation, as millions of people here did. But he never got involved in the Resistance. Consider that his work in itself is the greatest form of resistance, not only against an enemy but against millions of pre- tentious imbeciles.

Do not let yourself be influ- enced by nonexistent heroics. There were heroes in France, but they either paid with their lives or ask that there be silence for their actions? Picasso's international renown was suddenly greater than ever, but based on publicity rather than art. His new work, which had not been widely seen, held surprises even for his supporters, and strong political factors also came into play. Fighting had barely subsided in the streets of Paris when Picasso returned to his studio in the rue des Grands-Augustins from Marie-Therese's apartment on the Right Bank, where he had spent the last days of the conflict.

While there, he produced his personal celebration of the street fighting and Liberation, an interpretive copy of Poussin's Triumph of Pan figs. A likely subtext eventually accompa- nying the plan was a capitalization on Picasso's prestige to further the cause of the Communist Party. Although Picasso had not yet committed himself to membership, at least not publicly, it is more than coincidental that his enlistment and its announcement took place with much fanfare on October 4 and 5, timed to precede the opening of the Salon d'Automne by just one day. The story is now well known of the anti-Picasso manifestation staged in the Salon galleries by a gang of mostly student- aged visitors, spurred by a combination of reac- tionary objections to Picasso's aesthetics and politics, in which numerous paintings were actually taken down from the walls.

Political views aside, Picasso's wartime art would have come as a shock to many Parisians who were not overly familiar with his work in general, let alone the tormented vision of recent years, made even more aggressive by comparison with the pallid niceties seen throughout most of the rest of the Salon. In a rapid countermanifestation, other young people agreed to stand guard in the galleries.

Letters of praise for Picasso from Le Front national des etudiants and Comite national des ecrivains appeared in the media, and various critics chimed in with support for Picasso and his political stance. Stories about Picasso at the Salon d'Automne, such as that by G. Archambault that appeared in the New York Times Magazine on '29 October, often carried illus- trations of recent production. The storm of controversy that this latter show provoked in London, where protagonists were far removed from the political agendas surrounding Picasso in Paris, illustrates just how troubling the grim, raw nature of Picasso's wartime work could be.

In one characteristic attack on the exhibition, the critic Michael Ayrton wrote: His pictures are now uniformly dung-coloured.

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Picasso has in fact ceased to practice oil painting as a craft, and any other medium would have done as well for these pictures. He is now engaged upon the intellectual activity of flogging his own cliches to death with one dirty brush. Other critics rushed to Picasso's defense. All is calamity, beyond control or under- standing. His aim above all is to convey the mighty righteous anger of one who. In what may have been his first work after this readjustment to life in Paris, he painted on 25 January a small gouache on board of a reclining nude fig.

The theme of the reclining nude weaves through Picasso's wartime art with several permutations and interpretive twists. As in L'Aubade, the nude is sometimes accompanied by a musician. At other times, as with the Reclining Nude of , she is asleep, and sometimes the sleeper is accompanied by a companion, male or female, who watches and waits. Another variation is the combination of the nude with a figure who is washing, a theme with its own extended life in the wartime oeuvre. These nudes vary considerably in stylistic han- dling and formal associations.

L'Aubade, however, also relates to Ingres's Odalisque with a Slave from fig. Oil on canvas, 51 x 76 f i in. Berggruen Collection, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. The modeling of the nude in L'Aubade is highly planar, resembling the buildup of form in Picasso's later metal cutouts. In the Reclining Nude, by contrast, the modeling has a painterly, solidly three-dimensional quality that contributes much to the figure's powerful presence.

These works have in common a somber air of loneliness. The architectural surroundings are always bleak and confining. Picasso's palette is usually stripped down to a sensually deprived range of browns, grays, and ochers, and his dim illumination casts a nighttime, wintry chill over the pictures. Picasso told Heller and others that he pre- ferred to work at night, and that for the paintings to be understood, they should be seen at night.

Sh No work better exemplifies the mood of bleak subsistence that this cold nighttime light can express than the great Still Life with Blood Sausage traditionally dated 10 May cat. But this is more than just a simple wartime meal. The centralization of the table under an overhead light gives the composition a definite altarlike quality, with a suggestion of traditional formulas for divine light from above, as seen in so many seventeenth- century religious paintings.

The dramatic juxtaposi- tion of the truncated, intestinelike sausage with a large knife strongly invokes a sacrificial slaving, perhaps a reference to Christ's death on the cross. The bottle might contain sacramental wine or, alternatively, the vinegar that was fed to Christ in a sponge as he hung dying.

Out of the open drawer, which can be read in this context as in the shape of a coffin or tomb, arises a batch of knives and forks, referred to by Picasso at one point as souls in Purgatory and positioned to resemble small figures gesticulating upward in Last Judgment scenes. Brigitte Baer in her essay in this book provides an alternative reading of the picture as sell portrait In either case, it extends far beyond straightforward reportage into realms of personal revelation involving the artist's psychic file or thoughts of despair and salvation. Throughout the wartime period the still life remained a key vehicle of expression for Picasso.

Meet John Doe (1941)

Sometimes the works are small, not particularly ambitious exercises that might have afforded him a [ear taguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with a S - I tO Oil on canvas mounted on panel in sight A well-known series of paintings of tomato plants from August provides an unusually upbeat note through the abundant patterning of green vines dotted with balls of red, and also reveals a domestic side of Picasso's life, in that tomato plants were commonly grown in window boxes in wartime Paris for a supply of food.

Numerous works e. The one from 14 March cat. The lightened palette of the painting, however, particularly the stripe of yellow sunlight that grazes the skull, con- trasts with the morosity of many earlier works and may indicate the distinctly different emotional temperature that early in anticipated the end of the war. The one theme from these years that outweighs in importance and repetition even Picasso's still lifes is that of the Seated Woman.

This motif defines more than any other the inten- sity of work from the war years. Beginning, as we have seen, in the Royan period and continuing throughout his time in occupied Paris, Picasso returned to the compositional idea of the Seated Woman again and again, wringing from it varied expressive effects and psychological nuances.

From his "portraits" of others, an extensive self-portrait of the artist emerged. Attempts are often made to label these works with specific identifications, and Dora Maar is the person generally named see figs. The most often are, in fact, paintings of "woman" in general.

Picasso's smaller bustlength representa- tions also fit into this category. The most common motif, however, is a halflength figure seated in a chair, reminiscent in format of so many portraits of seated popes and cardinals from past centuries. Although amply represented in Picasso's earlier work, the motif took on special meaning for the artist during the war, seemingly because it was a reliable template of psychological investigation.

That Picasso told Andre Malraux, "When I paint a woman in an armchair, the armchair implies old age or death, right? Indeed, the range of emotion portrayed in these expressive women runs from humor and joy to utter abjection. In the former category is the sparkling Woman Seated in an Armchair of 12 October cat. Even though painted during the darkest hours of the war, this work, through its brightly colored patterns, seems to ringingly affirm life.

The sparkling stars in the wall- paper strike a note echoed throughout the rest of the densely packed, painterly surface. The only ominous element is the nail-like eyebrows that seem literally to pin one eye and one side of the face to the background. The Portrait of Dora Maar horn 9 October , supposedly painted over a drawing by Cocteau and well known for the striped blouse that Picasso "made up,"'" shows the extreme range of modes that applies in these paintings.

Modeled with a degree of natural ism Picasso generally reserved during these years for women particularly dear to him such as his daughter Maya and Nusch Eluard, Dora stares outward with a wide-eyed look of resignation. Woman with a Cigarette Holder Dora Mam. Musee Picasso, Paris, Picasso Archives. Proboscis like noses resemble the long and slender snout of Picasso's Afghan hound Kazbek. Teeth are bared in open mouths, read to pierce. NASH 33 gripped by dark, angular hats and rigid blocks of hair. Bust of a Woman appeared just three days after the brightly painted Woman Seated in an Armchair from Diisseldorf but represents a drastic shift of emotion from the gay and playful to dark terror.

One of the most famous of these seated figures, the Woman with an Artichoke horn see fig. On the one hand, she has all the regal bearing of Ingres's Mme Moitessier or his Napoleon seated on his throne with raised scepter. The overall, inescapable impression of the image, however, is threatening power. The monumental scale of the figure is daunting. The sharp fingers on one hand are like claws or an armored glove, and the arti- choke has more the look of a club or a German hand grenade.

Picasso's palette of dark greens, grays, and browns reinforces the lugubrious mood. The force behind all these works is the twisting, distorting, deconstructing experience of war. Out of the depths of despair, however, Picasso was able to extract reasons for hope. Beginning with the monumental Man with a Lamb of spring cat. Two recent developments in the Allied counteroffensive against Germany — the invasion of North Africa in October and the surrender of the German Sixth Army in Russia after the Battle of Stalingrad - signaled a decisive change in the fortunes of war.

Such events were reported to the French population not by Vichy newspapers but by clandestine papers and the BBC, and Picasso would have been aware of them. Picasso made his first known studies for the Man with a Lamb on 15 July , conflating two figures in the classical scene of tribute-bearing in his print Paris, 14 July cat. Museum Ludwig, Ludwig Collection, Cologne. Although Picasso cautioned about the final sculpture that "there's nothing religious about it at all.

The fixed expression on the man's face and his tight grip, with huge hands, on the braying, strain- ing lamb suggest the latter. Picasso's "human feel- ing," however, may come not so much from the man's care of the lamb as from the transcending notion of dedication, as in the ancient story of Abraham and Isaac, and the willingness to make a sacrifice for the greater common good. This mes- sage in would have been powerful and hope- ful, and it is little wonder that Picasso kept the Man with a Lamb in the center of his studio for the rest of the war and often posed with it, as a centerpiece of his wartime art, with postwar visitors see fig.

Another optimistic signal is found in the large painting entitled First Steps from 21 May cat. A wobbly but determined child is being helped to take its first steps by a protective mother. Easy sentiment was not a common ingredient in Picasso's wartime work, and here, the strongly architectural quality of his composition, with the mother forming a compact arch over the angular structure of the child, overrides the sweetness of theme.

In essence, Picasso stresses not only the innocence of youth but also the hopeful future of a younger generation as it thrives and carries forward. Even the architectural studies Picasso made of familiar sites and monuments in the immediate environs of Paris strike a sanguine note. These date from mid- onward. Although generally dark and claustrophobically patterned, they concentrate on well-known structures - bridges, Notre Dame, the Vert-Galant - and seem to celebrate the beauty and lasting humanistic quality of this built environment.

His variation on Poussin's Triumph of Pan figs.

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It is a bacchanalia of the spirit. After the painful distortions found in his earlier Seated Women, Picasso's figures are whole again, albeit stretched and twisted in rubbery configurations that now are emblems of glee rather than debilita- tion. Cognizant of the healing role that art could play after so devastating a societal disaster, and the need for a restoration of order, Picasso spoke of the importance at this time of an art of discipline.

Indeed, some of his darkest and most troubling pictures followed VE Day, during the difficult period of European reconstruction. Nevertheless, hostilities were near an end by the close of Early in , Picasso began work on a painting that stands as a counterpart to the Guernica of , commemorating the conclusion of the war years just as that earlier masterpiece had marked their beginning. His Chamel House cat. In one combined, powerful statement, Picasso exhibited both paintings at the Communist-organized exhibition Art et resistance in February , where they spoke propagandisti- cally of mourning, retribution, and the harsh treatment Spanish Republicans had received at the hands of the French government.

As with the earlier work, Picasso restricted himself to a highly restrained palette of grays, black, and white, applied within a linear structure of segmented details that adds a staccato rhythm to the light-dark contrasts. This black-and- white construction may express in part Picasso's debt to the graphic art of Goya, where he had found a similar image of mass carnage,""' or may also reflect the influence of black-and-white films or photography. Dora Maar claimed that the idea for the painting came from a feature film they had seen together.

Reports of the camps and other charniers had begun to spread even before the end of , sometimes with the inclusion of photographs of victims. Part of Picasso's success in producing so strong a brooding effect in this picture is owed to a factor that in the past has been considered a fault, the canvas's non-finito condition.

Picasso worked on the composition intermittently over a long period of time, and Zervos photographed several different states. Obviously Picasso considered it "finished" enough to sign it and release it for exhibition and sale. National Gallery, London. At any rate, it consum- mates in highly moving form the humanistic mes- sage of concern for the human race that animates so much of Picasso's wartime work.

William Rubin has called it a requiem. Both the Charnel House and Monument to the Spanish Who Died for France satisfy Picasso's pre- scription for an art that could serve as a forceful "instrument ol war against the enemy. Picasso spoke frequent! For me it is a vessel in the metaphorical sense, just likt Christ's use of parables. For it is only when the widest commonplace is infused with the intensest passion that a great work of art, transcending all schools and categories, is born; and being bom, lives immortally.

Like Van Gogh's potatoes and boots, expressive symbols that Picasso openly admired, his quotid ian, nondescript subjects speak loudly. His blood sausages, artichokes, and leeks, sheep skulls intended ultimately for the dog's dinner, casseroles and candles, and anonymous Lonely women may not actually scream the truth of the war, but they hit their marks of meaning with uncorrupted.

Its journalistic title might well have been updated by Picasso to the Twenty- Sixth of April, m order to pinpoint the historical reality of the Nazi saturation bombing of helpless civilians as they went about their business at the end of a Monday market day in the ancient Basque capital. Expanding upon many of the gruesome vignettes Goya recorded in a series of etchings, the" Disasters of War, the Third of May shrilly proclaims an era dominated bv the anti-Christ The central.

Among those about to die is another figure who would outrage Catholic pieties, a tonsured monk who, kneeling, clutches his hands in a prayer that will go unheeded. The malevolent night sky offers no source of light and, below it, the unidentified monastery with a church tower which recalls the sacred buildings that dominated the silhouette of Fuendetodos, Goya's birthplace looks like an archaeological relic from a civiliza- tion forever extinguished by the human slaughter in the foreground.

Replacing the natural light of the sky, a lantern used by the Napoleonic troops targets the captured guerrillas and permits a glimpse of the carnage with photoflash clarity. The widening beam of light from the yellow and -white lantern, whose colors are echoed in the vellow- and-white clothing of the central victim, almost becomes a surrogate agent of death.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Christ on the Mount of Olives, which Goya in fact would paint in a legible Christian guise some five years later in , giving it to the fathers at the Escuelas Pias in Madrid, is one such theme echoed by the Third of May as well as by the first plate, Sad Forebodings of Things to Come, of the Disasters of War, whose most shocking scenes of torture, dismemberment, and corpse-bearing can be viewed as new, godless mutations of standard Christian iconography.

As a young artist, Goya, like the young Picasso, depicted a familiar religious repertory, including the Burial and the Lamentation of Christ fig. Francisco de Goya, Burial of Christ, ca. Museo Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid. Unhappy Mother, fig. And the most barbaric mutilations depicted no. Of the countless ways to interpret Guernica and its progeny, Goya's bitter inversions of Catholic imagery and morality offer some major points of departure.

But following as well a tradition of anti-Catholic parody particularly vital in the most pious Catholic nations, Picasso, from his childhood on, would often make irreverent jokes on these conventional pieties. Already in WJ. UM 43 FIG. Oil on canvas, 96 x 92 in. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. Before leav- ing for the Art Institute of Chicago in , it had made its way to Paris in , where, for two years, it resided at the mecca of modern art, the Galerie Durand-Ruel, frequented by Picasso and every other aspiring artist.

Among other things, he thereby fused the fin-de-siecle concept of woman as virgin or femme fatale, 12 and recalled as well the old quip about the male Spaniard's typical Sunday: mass in the morning, bullfight in the after- noon, and brothel in the evening. Such a double-entendre may still be understood in the context of the popular humor of Catholic countries that turns nuns into whores and priests into money-grabbing drunkards.

But thirty years later, in Guernica, Picasso's heretical use of Catholic iconography took on a new and tragic pervasiveness whose sense of total malevolence matched not only its prototypes in Goya, but also the historical events on the eve of World War II. Christian faith has become futile, challenged already at the top of the painting in the sinister source of artificial light that offers the work's only reference to a uniquely twentieth-century reality.

Muscc 1'icasso, Pans. Bui this violation of cosmic nal oral order extends to the supernatural ordei. Nothing is more Familiar as a light source in Catholic art than the heavenly radiance that, often emanating from a dove, the symbol of the lloh Spirit, glows from the central heights ol altarpieces that depict a wide range of Christian narratives. To choose only three of main old master Spanish example's from the Prado, an early foundation for Picasso's infinite storehouse of images, El Greco's Pentecost ca.

L fig. Juan Bautista Maino's Adoration of the Magi Kill , and Diego Velazquez's Coronation of the Virgin by the Trinity all turn our terrestrial eyes upward to a celestial sun and bird. In Guernica, that sun and bird have been destroyed. UM 45 havoc below as well as the photographic means of recording and disseminating it through the press, much as the light from the groundborne lantern in Goya's Third of May seems both the agent of death and the objective way of disclosing these unspeak- able facts for posterity. As for the bird, it falls in the throes of death not only from its natural element, the sky, but also from its supernatural Catholic symbol of a radiant blaze of light.

It may also be a bleak inversion of the message of the colomba, the dove in the upper left-hand corner of a manuscript page illustrating the Deluge in the Spanish Romanesque Apocalypse of Saint Sever fig. Picasso knew well these visionary images from medieval Spain and, as often pointed out, used their flat styl- izations and colors, as did Mho, for inspiration, not only in his Crucifixion of but in the treatment of Guernica's fallen warrior.

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  • Guernica's bird, too, is marked for sacrifice, its open beak rhyming with the screaming mouth of the mother at the left, just before the moment it lands on a tabletop. There is something strangely sacramental about this feath- ered offering, as if the birds were placed on an altar. Oil on canvas, x 50 in. Illuminated manuscript. Bibliotheque Nationale, 1'aiis. A conseiller? Paul Vecchialli en dit le plus grand bien mais personnellement je ne partage pas du tout son avis.

    Je crois que je vais me laisser tenter. Il est exceptionnel. Ceci explique sans doute cela. Michael J. A Yves Rouxel nommez au moins le film que vous avez revu. Au Moyen Age???? Merci bien Yves. A Denis. A Gilles alias yvesremords. Son Quasimodo est plus poignant, plus humain, moins bestial et caricatural que celui de Lon Chaney. En ouverture, il examine avec bienveillance la nouvelle invention de Gutenberg. Merci pour cet article passionnant. A Mathieu Merci! Le DVD permet de les admirer dans quelques stereoscopes faits par Worsley je crois.

    Achetez donc ses livres en compensation comme celui sur les Chevaliers de la Table ronde et sur Borzage ou…Dieterle. Est-ce une bonne intuition? Est-ce vous? A Ballantrae. Concernant les fanzines ,quels sont les titres svp? Jules Berry dans le role du pianiste est siderant. Quel bonhomme ce Vanel!!! Si vous partagez ma peine oui, vraiment! Ils tentent de se renouveler. Quelle bonne nouvelle que cette prochaine livraison! On retrouve toute une generation de jeunes acteurs qui faisaient leurs premiers pas devant la camera.

    Merci encore! Voyez son documentaire. Tant pis. Hasard bizarre. Je vais me reprendre en main,promis!! Aimez vous ses films les plus politiques? Du strict point de vue de son engagement politique. Le contenu est en revanche proprement honteux. Stone a senti cela. Il est en effet, remarquable. Le livre est plus fort, plus complexe avec ses multiples points de vue. A Alexandre Angel Pardon. Comme quoi. Vraiment dommage. Les westerns avec Clint Walker sont fort bons. Mme J. Her large collection of miniatures, pictures, ceramics, objets d'art etc.

    Paris, Drouot, Lair-Dubreuil, Desvouges, Brugge, His first collection was sold in Paris, Ces deux derniers morceaux proviennent de la grande vente de M. Randon de Boisset. Haut 15 p. Paris, Jean-Ferdinand Olivier, Paris, Bonnefons Amaury, George, Labille-Guiard, Mme Mitoire ]. After his death Catherine II acquired his collection of works on paper - some drawings and 31, prints - together with some of his paintings. London, Sotheby's, They handled several pastels by John Russell. He travelled widely throughout Europe, but settled in Paris.

    His accounts of the state of the arts in countries from France to Germany and Sweden contain useful insights. His sale of gouaches and drawings included a number of pastels and drawings with pastel. Boucher, Adoration des Rois; etc. Cet article contient 12 Dessins. Une des Etudes est en pastel, et une sous verre.

    In addition to collecting original drawings, he also made copies. There were some lots of drawings in his posthumous sale, as well as more than 12, lithographs. Paris Georges Petit, La marquise d'Anglure. Grissell, Esq. Rouen, 29, rue des Bons-Enfants, They lived at 12 rue de Tilsitt, Paris when she lent a pastel said to be of La Tour's mother in William Bartlett in His sale took place in Sale p.

    Smith, Burdett Other pastels: Hamilton, Barre.

    Table of contents

    Philippe BURTY , collector, art historian, proponent of Japanese art, critic for the Gazette des Beaux-Arts from , editor of the Correspondance of Delacroix, ; father-in-law of the porcelain manufacturer Charles Haviland. His novel, Grave imprudence , appeared in ; it has certain similarities with the Goncourts' Manette Salomon. Weisberg, "Philippe Burty: a notable critic of the nineteenth century", Apollo , xci, , pp. Lulia sold a magnificent collection of tapestries and pictures in Paris, Two pastels by Perronneau, baron P. Paul's son Jean and granddaughter Marianne Roland Michel continued the business and also published widely on the French eighteenth century.

    A pastel after Michelangelo was in his estate inventory Rome, Hans M. A Troost pastel in now in the British Museum. The collection which the Revolution forced him to sell during his exile in London had been assembled during his travels in Europe at a cost of over 60, guineas according to the auction catalogue. His collection of French and Italian drawings commenced in , when he acquired several sheets at the Crozat sale. A major sale, including drawings, took place two years after his death to settle his enormous debts. A pastel portrait by Coypel is known only from a miniature copy.

    Watteau [24 livres 1; Chariot] Paris, Christie's, By the s he had built an immense fortune in cork and hydroelectric power. His political writings were influential during the rise of fascism in Spain. He was also a supporter of a degree of Catalan autonomy.

    Pastels: La Tour, Laideguive. Initially an employee of Hector Brame, he was mainly associated with the Impressionists. His wife was the singer Julia Rivera. He owned pastels by Hall Robert and La Tour homme which he lent to exhibitions in Dictionary, artists. The pastels listed are presumably his own work, but there may be confusions with Domenico Maria Canuti. Both the Oxenden and Capel Cure families owned picture collections, and she inherited the collection of her brother Basil Oxenden q.

    Naples a. Abate D. Lionardo Capuano", "conoscitore delle pitture antiche"; "vedendosi molte belle pitture ad olio, ed in pastelli, con rari disegni nel suo bellissimo appartamento". None is known today. His estate inventory The firm supplied a considerable number of undescribed Louis XV pastels to Duveen Brothers in the early s, according to the latter's accounts. Collections for list in ; his grandmother came from that town. La Tour himself had provided for the unmarried mothers of Saint-Quentin and was familiar with lost causes.

    Her posthumous Teilungsinventar documented the division of her collection between her three sons, Karl Ludwig, Friedrich and Ludwig see Lauts The lack of detail makes it very difficult to interpret the inventory, which, among numerous art objects, lists in a separate section some pastels set out below , including unfinished sheets etc. Almost all are unattributed.

    The original orthography and abbreviations are preserved e. Karlsruhe pp. It appears that the objects in the two inventories are separate. Ein Frauenzimmerkopf in Pastell von Perronot, in schwarzer Rahme. Mlle Huquier] F 1 do. Ein halbnacktes Frauenzimmer. Rthl [Carriera] Nr. Rthl Ein Frauenzimmer in venetianischer Masque, in Pastell von Leotard.

    Rthl 88 Nr. Rthl 22 [? Tod der Kleopatra] Nr.

    The May 1968 Events in France

    Rthl 6 Nr. Rthl Nr. He edited Gomm's letters and wrote a book about Rotherhithe Manor, which his wife inherited from her uncle. Two Russell pastels left by Martha Goldsworthy to her companion, Sir William Gomm's aunt, passed to his son Hubert , the Liberal politician and publisher, but most of the collection, acquired from Sir William's widow, Dame Elizabeth Ann Kerr , granddaughter of the 5th Marquess of Lothian, were presented for sale at Christie's in as the "Gomm collection" following the passing of the Gomm Heirlooms Act It included old master paintings and early English drawings as well as two pastels.

    Cartwright bought two Cotes pastels of members of the Colyear family at the Dawkins sale in , and also owned a Russell Mrs Allingham.

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    • He owned a number of pastels which were seized by Hitler or the ERR. His collection was dispersed in a number of sales after his death, including that in New York, Parke-Bernet, Walter Richard CASSELS , author of an anti-religious tract entitled Supernatural religion which attracted much attention when it appeared anonymously in ; he was also a poet and art collector. He lent pastels by Despax to the Salon de Toulouse in These reappeared in his posthumous sale in Toulouse, 7. Their daughter Diane married the prince de Poix. His art collection, assembled in the period , encompassed some works, mainly of the Golden Age and late 19th century.

      Mlle Fel. Her extensive collections and Diderot's role in enlarging it are discussed in numerous sources. Dictionary , genealogy, Russia Lit. He was the subject of an intriguing double portrait with his wife, previously in the Groult collection, attributed to Perronneau. In he inherited the estates of his uncle Claude-Abraham, but he seems not to have used the title of duc de Caylus, which passed in turn to a cousin, Achille-Joseph de Robert, marquis de Lignerac, 2e duc de Caylus c.

      A catalogue of the collections published in contains items and descriptions that do not precisely match those in the sale e. Item no. MEREL: [p. Quatre tableaux ovales en pastel de vingt-deux pouces de haut sur vingt-deux pouces de large, [p. Vente, Paris, Remy, Ce Tableau est peint au pastel.

      Fragonard [30 livres 2] Lot Trois portraits de jolies Femmes, au pastel, ils sont de forme ovale. Hauteur 15 pouces, largeur 12 pouces 6 lignes. A bibliophile, the sale of his library in produced , francs. Dictionary , artists; suppliers, s. Mme Chaise Vente p. His collection included a number of important portraits as well as books and furniture, of which only part was sold in Emmanuel's brother, vicomte Robert, died on a scientific mission to Abyssinia. Paris, Galerie Charpentier, The comtesse de Champfeu lived at 42 rue de Bourgogne, Paris when she lent two pastels to the Paris a exhibtion, both inherited by her husband from Charles Jourdier q.

      Dictionary , index of suppliers. His sale including drawings. Paris, Boussaton, The marquise owned a La Tour pastel Mlle Gaussin in The bulk of his estate was left to his nephew, Joseph II. Six major sales took place after his death, notably that of The posthumous inventory includes 19 pastels no doubt including some by Liotard. Un pastel, h. Deux portraits de S. Un portrait de S. His posthumous sale, Christie's, She lent a pastel thought to be by Perronneau, but now attributed to Hoin to exhibitions in Paris in and Her posthumous sale of pictures and drawings Paris, Georges Petit, 2—3.

      Dictionary , genealogy Chaumont. Pastels: Carriera, Callisto ; Coles, Clarissa. Venice , drawings collector, Venice, from whom Crozat q. Considerable confusion surrounds this improbably spelt name variants are Chelchelsberg, Chechelberg. He was the German resident in Venice recorded as consul from , and a member of a family that had held this position for over years. Gasparo Chechel, presumably his father, was also an art collector, owning mainly Flemish paintings according to his inventory. Giorgio Chechel seems to have acquired some of his collection from Feldmarschall Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg.

      Giorgio's son Gaspar also seems to have played an important role in the Fondaco de Tedeschi in Venice, and also collected drawings. Giorgio's grandson, by his daughter Caterina Pezzana, married Elisabeth Le Blond, daughter of the French consul and probably sister of the subject of Rosalba's pastel. Trained as a lawyer, he worked as a museum administrator from He was appointed assistant curator at the Louvre in , and was directeur des Beaux-Arts, Paris His memoirs are of interest.

      In a letter to Mme de Tencin, 5. He was himself the subject of pastels by Hoare and Knapton. His posthumous inventory recorded "dans une autre chambre au fond du corridor donnant sur le jardin deux tableaux pastels peints sous verre portraits de M. They were probably versions of the La Tour pastels, one of them being the copy of Belle-Isle now in Metz. A modest art collection was sold after his death, realising livres; the Perronneau portraits of Chevotet and his wife were not recorded. He supported the poor and was a literary patron.

      He owned Giulio Romano's pastel self-portrait now in the Uffizi. His inventory Rome, 1. His acquisitions started before his marriage in to the heiress of the Crozat fortune, but it was during the period after his return to Paris that most of his purchases were made, at public sales e.

      Jullienne, and privately. The collection was dispersed after his disgrace. Part of his collection descended to the princesse de Faucigny-Lucinge q. Paris, Boileau, Paillet, Together with the son of the composer Bizet he founded the Banque automobile, one of the earliest institutions to provide credit for car purchase.

      Pastels: Drouais, enfant au bourdon. London , of 8 Vigo Street, London: held an important exhibition of pastels in v. London Some of the firm's stock was included in a sale at Sotheby's, A keen gardner and racehorse owner, he also collected a wide range of pictures, textiles, furniture, porcelain etc. Others were sold at auction, Christie's, 7. Clarke q. Dictionary , genealogy, Bayern Bonn, Roslin Lot Restout, attr. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Clive Milnes-Coates, 2nd Bt , who married a daughter of the Marquess of Crewe in and added her name in The pastels in his collection were presumably acquired by Sir Edward.

      Three were on loan to the Bowes Museum in Smith, various pstls Lots anon. A number of pastels are now in the Hermitage, some or all acquired through prince Galitzin. Pastels: Russell, Mrs Barber. Germain Seligman visited Gabriel Cognacq's collection at 44 avenue Bugeaud on His daughter married Antoine-Philippe Gentil, premier valet de chambre de la garde-robe du roi. Some records confuse the two. Pastels: Tilson, Lady London , fine art dealers.

      Paul Colnaghi was employed from around ; his sons Martin and Dominic joined around In Paul and his son Dominic established the firm of P. In P. Colnaghi took over the firm of Gutekunst and Deprez, and Colnaghi was subsequently run by Otto Gutekunst after the retirement of Edmund Deprez Martin Colnaghi went bankrupt in , and died in ; but his son, Martin Henry Colnaghi , took up art dealing in ; he was never a partner in his uncle's firm, but worked for Henry Graves before establishing the Marlborough Gallery.

      He employed R. Dictionary , genealogy Inv. Rome, The entire collection of the doctor, "lately deceased", was sold at auction on Dictionary , genealogy, France Lit. Ce beau morceau peint en pastel, porte 13 pouces de haut, sur 11 pouces de large: il vient du cabinet de M. Mariette, no. He owned several pastels by Russell Godbold; Love songs and matches; Age of bliss. Her brother married a van Zuylen. Bruges, Pachtere, 7. Giovannino; 6 testi.

      Hauteur, 20 pouces; largeur, 16 pouc. Pastels: La Tour, auto. New York, Anderson, Dictionary , artists Sale p. One ditto by F. A Venus and Cupid by ditto. He was active in many art committees, and participated in numerous exhibitions. He lent a La Tour pastel to Paris b; by it belonged to his wife's nephew. His fortune was estimated at his death at c. His collection, of nearly lots, included paintings, drawings, prints, enamels and miniatures, and some portraits, classified separately. Pierre, 18 pouces de haut, sur 14 pouces 6 lignes de large [22 livres; Glomy] Lot [Anon:] Une Madeleine peinte au pastel.

      Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, Paris, Remy, He was the son of an organ bulder, plain John Courcelle, and initially taught music before taking a degree at Worcester College, Oxford as a mature student. He was rector of Ardrossan but held no office after , living on independent means at 24 Arundel Gardens, Notting Hill. Paris, Escribe, His very extensive collections were sold in several sales in , and included pastels by La Tour, Perronneau and Greuze as well as a good many anonymes. New York, Christie's, Panshanger House, built by the 5th Earl, was demolished in , and the Sotheby's sale followed.

      Dictionary , genealogy London, Sotheby's, Charles Coypel, du tableau du Correge qui est au Palais Royal: elle est sous une glace [72 livres; St. After the Revolution he formed a collection of portraits of illustrious persons, mainly from the reign of Louis XIV. Portrait de Voltaire, par Ch. Coypel, en Portrait de C. Bol Lot La Rosalba. The sale that took place shortly after the Gaston's death included a group of miniatures as well as large numbers of coins, medals, cameos and intaglios, but only one pastel.

      Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, The Mengs pastels were reported by Diderot in Pastels: Mengs, courtisane ; philiosophe. Cronier rose to be managing director of the firm and after Say's death trustee of his estate. He acquired French and English 18th century portraits, as well as paintings by Watteau and Fragonard, from Gimpel and others during the period until his suicide in. Acting in concert with Jaluzot, founder of the Printemps department store, they used the Say estate to take an enormous long position which proved disastrous when the price of sugar halved. Criminal proceedings against Jaluzot commenced, while Cronier took cyanide and simultaneously shot himself.

      The posthumous sale in does not include all his collection, as he occasionally made exchanges he acquired a pastel child by Russell from Gimpel in After his death in , the collection was sold to Diderot as agent for Catherine II, and is now in the Hermitage. A group of pastels by Wallerant Vaillant were said to have been acquired from Crozat by prince Galitzin q. Courajod, Paris, , I, p. Catalogue des tableaux du cabinet de M. Les quatre saisons en quatre demi figures de femmes avec leus attributs. Un portrait de profil. Une vierge.

      Portrait de Louis XV esquisse. Henri also owned a group of portraits from Wertmuller's Bordeaux period. Sales of Chinese porcelain and other items took place in London, Sotheby's, 7. His posthumous sale was scheduled for 3. None of the nine pastels in his sale is known even from reproductions today. His broad ranging collections were dispersed in a series of sales from His collection, "removed from his late Apartments at St James's and his House at Twickenham", was sold in three parts, with Christie's taking charge of the pictures; sales of medals and drawings took place over the following weeks.

      Charles H. The British Museum acquired approximately drawings or prints from him, including a pastel by Drummond. Auguste's posthumous sale included an important collection of early prints. His interests ranged from paintings and miniatures to oriental art and antiquities - some of which appear in a Vuillard portrait of him. During the war some of the collection was seized by the ERR; pastels included a Greuze jeune fille and a Nanteuil, Hardouin.

      After his death, his collection of miniatures was split into two groups, one given to the Louvre and the other bought by Wildenstein and sold complete to Sir Charles Clore. David-Weill's philanthropic tradition is continued by his grandson Michel David-Weill. Morice, "La collection David-Weill His eldest son, James Dawkins , started his Grand Tour in when he inherited his father's estates; he developed an interest in archaeology, and collected pictures; apart from his own portrait, he commissioned a set of the Seasons from Rosalba.

      His brother Henry, the subject of a pastel by La Tour, was admitted to the Society of Dilettanti on the strength of James's celebrity. Their pictures descended to Henry's grandson, the Rev. The collection passed to their son Edward Henry Frederick Dawkins before the sale. Lot 9: James Dawkins [80 gns; Toogood]; Lot the same, ov. He lent pastels by Perronneau to the Cent pastels exhibition in Fellowes; Singer. He later turned to the cinema. He built up a collection of French 18th century engravings from the age of 40 before switching to old master drawings and then paintings.

      He sold these in ; a collection which cost Fr, sold for Fr1. But he restarted collecting immediately, repurchasing some of his own collection at the sale and later. A number of drawings were sold in Pierre Decourcelle", Les Arts , , , p. Mme Poisson. The group consisted of five pastels thought to be by La Tour, four of which seem to have been acquired by Auguste de Gas in an anonymous Paris sale, All four, with a further La Tour magistrat , were lent to the Paris a exhibition.

      Degas also owned a Rosalba autoritratto. Degas frequently visited Saint-Quentin. Shortly after the death of his father, the affairs of the family bank obliged Degas to seek to sell much of the collection, and some of the pastels were acquired by Hector Brame. Her will included pastels by Liotard and Pond. Robert Edward DELL , journalist, first editor of the Burlington magazine , ; he resigned to become Paris correspondent of the Manchester Guardian , and also owned Shirleys Ltd, a gallery at 9 boulevard Malesherbes.

      In a review of the Doucet sale for the Burlington , Dell expressed infuriation that a pastel by La Tour should fetch more than a canvas by Fragonard. He was expelled from France after the war, having criticised the the French Government's peace negotiations in He later lived in New York. He lent several pastels to the Paris exhibition, which he organised with his associates Max Rothschild and R.

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      Dell's attribution of two pastels to Engleheart q. Hamilton, Adelaide Payne ; Phelps, Handel. His son became an MP in , and he was well known as a patron and connoisseur. Although his wealth earned him the nickname of Peter the Tsar, his prodigious spending led to financial difficulties and he shot himself at his London home, 15 Grosvenor Square. The attribution of the pastels in the sale presumably that of his son, Peter III, should be treated with caution.

      After his father's death in , he took charge of the family villa at San Donato near Florence, part of which he turned over to a workshop for the manufacture of silks, while also enlarging the extensive art collection. An expedition to the Crimea which he organised in resulted in the numerous scientific publications.

      In he married Napoleon's niece, princesse Mathilde q. Demidov's collections and titles passed to his nephew Paul Demidov London, The Wallace Collection, Pastels: I. Based in Paris, rue de Berry c. He was in competition with Duveen, and accusations of forgery of goods supplied by Demotte led to a defamation action that ended when Demotte was found dead near Versailles. His business passed to his son Lucien, who committed suicide in Demotte Inc. Journu ; Mme Legrix ; Mme Molles. Paris, Chevallier, Dutch paintings figured strongly in his collection, but the pastels seem mainly to have been Perronneau's portraits of members of his family.

      Perronneau , p. In an inventory of 3. The premises of "Desmarest, graveur depuis " are still preserved in the Palais-Royal. A large collection of drawings and prints were in the sale; possibly the same vendor as the dealer in the sale of "J. Desmarets, cessation de commerce". A Desmarets was a commissaire priseur from rue du Bouloi, c. Paris, Rouseau, Geoffroy, 4. His albums of architectural drawings are in a number of public collections, including Berlin and St Petersburg. His grandson Philippe d'Estailleur-Chanteraine had a pastel said to be by Perronneau of the naturalist Daubenton.

      They were also supporters of the arts. His sale, Paris, Drouot, Pouchet, This was dispersed in two sales and , following his widow's death. His son Antoine-Nicolas , also a magistrate, was the author of the Voyage pittoresque de Paris and des environs de Paris , of several gardening treatises, and of an extension of his father's work, the Vies des dameux architectes et sculpteurs… Dezallier d'Argenville: Paris, The celebrated type founder was Firmin Didot He may have been the Didot whose sale took place in His son, Ambroise-Firmin Didot, later known as Ambroise Firmin-Didot , diplomat and traveller, took over the business in He was interested in classical literature, typography, paper making and engraving, and his reference books on the Drevets and Les Graveurs de portraits en France , are of great use.

      He presumably assembled the collection of 18 pastels and drawings by Wallerant Vaillant which were lent to the Paris exhibition by his son Alfred Firmin-Didot , also a printer. Didot: Paris, Henry Lacoste, After his death his widow married Abel Vautier, a parlementaire from Caen. They cannot now be identified specifically. The case of Shrager v Basil Dighton Ltd , in which he was sued by a dissatisfied client, is frequently cited as a legal precedent.

      He travelled in Italy in , and wrote to Rosalba Carriera on He was Walter Gay's agent. His elder brother was Murray W. Reading Bertron q. Pastels: Greenhill, lady. Paris, Georges Petit, It was then initially lent and finally given to the Louvre in He collaborated with Remy on providing expertises for estate inventories. Ils viennent de la vente du Baron d'Olback. Ils viennent de la vente de notre cabinet, No. Ce morceau est peint au pastel et sous verre. He created an important collection of mediaeval works his first piece was bought at the age of 16 , many acquired with advice from Marius Paulme, who prepared an illustrated manuscript catalogue of the whole collection.

      His collection was preserved and continued by his family, notably his son Pierre Dormeuil and grandson, Xavier Dormeuil , following whose death a number of pastels were sold. A watercolour by Adrien Karbowsky shows the main drawing room around with a wall on which four La Tour pastels are hung among Chardin, Ducreux, Lawrence and Reynolds canvases. After the sale, Doucet moved to Neuilly, where he started a new collection, of the avant garde of his day. To both of these he brought his legendary perfectionism. Part of his collections descended in the family to his great-nephew Jean Angladon-Dubrujeaud and are now part of the Fondation Angladon in Avignon.

      Joubin, "Jacques Doucet", Gazette des beaux-arts ,. Fr; Fr; Stettiner] Lot Perronneau, enfant , [est. Fr15,; Fr14,; Graat]. Dr Anton C. Although Anton was particularly interested in Dutch art, his collection was much broader, and was noted for its eclectic character.