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XI, p. Mark S. Ponelle et L. Weil, art. II, p. Dubois, art. Les auteurs divergent sur la date de la. Hautes- Alpes, 3 H 2, 1, p. C'est nous qui soulignons. Mauzaize, op. XII, p. Hautes-Alpes, 3 H 2, 1, p. Blauf, p. Bernardo de Aguavtva, art. Pour la Touraine, cf. Urbinianae, , p.

Oechslin, Une aventure spirituelle. Paris-Fribourg, Oechslin, op.


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X, lre partie, p. Delumeao, La peur en Occident, Paris, , p. Chossat, op. Bernardo de Aguaviva, art. Lebrun, Paris, , p. Mauzaise, op. Dom Beauchet-Filleau , p. Paul de Barry 13 avril The Iberian people clustered in separated tribes with the same culture located in the eastern part of the peninsula. They knew how to write documents found but the Iberians have not been able to decipher them. The Iberian cities lacked temples but they built sanctuaries where they deposited offerings, the votive offerings, which were made of bronze, clay or stone and used to represent warriors with weapons like the falcata and the helmet.

In the Iberian world we find cults similar to the cycles of Mother Earth, typical of the first agricultural people, while others may rather be related to the belief in the celestial deities, typical of the people dedicated to livestock and grazing. The worship to Diana that Strabo tells us is one of the many invocations in which the monolithic faith into Mother Earth or Mother Goddess splintered. The bull, animal to which the Iberians worshiped, is a polyvalent symbol, which both may be related to the goddess of the earth and the gods of heaven.

Cults are celebrated in shrines built at a distance from the settlements. The worship at shrines adopted an annual pilgrimage way, which surely coincided with the cycles of agriculture, particularly with the summer solstice. The predominant funeral ritual is cremation; the ashes were deposited in an urn or cloth. The Iberians used the rite of incineration, known thanks to the Phoenicians who introduced the Urn field culture.

The ashes were kept in ceramic urns with the shape of a cup with lid and undecorated. Others had the shape of a box with legs ending in claws, with lids and decoration of animals. The urns were introduced in pits dug in the ground together with a funeral trousseau. In other tumuli the weapons of the deceased were deposited, who was incinerated and introduced into an ornamented vessel made of ceramics. In some funerals warriors fought on the tomb to death, as in the funeral of Viriato. About 9, years ago, the last communities of hunter-gatherers who occupied the Iberian Peninsula began to bury people systematically in cemeteries, a habit that is linked to the progressive sedentarization of these societies and a significant change in their economic activities.

The oldest cemetery of the Iberian Peninsula is in Oliva Valencia. The remains are are between and years old. Some places of worship such as urban sanctuaries have been identified. Sacred spaces have also been identified, such as the domestic sanctuary of The Oral S. These figures are both priestesses and warriors, on foot or on horseback. Others are sacrificing an animal with a knife, or showing their respect with their hands up, or with open arms. Los celtas habitaban aldeas, llamadas castros, muy fortificadas y sin apenas calles y se organizaban en tribus o clanes.

The Celts have an Indo-European origin and came to the Peninsula in great waves in the ninth and sixth centuries B. They settled down in the interior side of the Peninsula. They devoted to non-irrigated cereal agriculture, to pig farming and ironworking.


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There are many Celtic tribes and the most important ones are the Lusitanian, the vacceos and carpetanos. Through contact with the Iberian culture the Celtiberian, Celts influenced by the Iberian culture appeared. In the Cantabrian area we find the least developed Celtic people: Asturians, Cantabrians and Basques.

The Celts lived in villages, called forts, heavily fortified and with little streets and organized into tribes or clans. Within these villages there was no private property since everything is distributed evenly. Their religion and beliefs were dominated and led by the priestly caste of the druids. In their beliefs they assimilated other cultures that preceded them, as it is the case of megalithic culture. The Celts worshiped natural forces such as forests, rivers, lakes, etc.

Solar cycles also had a great influence on their actions. Esculturas Zoomorfas Verracos - Bulls Guisanto. Junto a estas colonias, los fenicios utilizaron establecimientos de menor entidad. Se le representaba, a veces, como figura humana, otras como un toro, o una figura humana y cabeza de toro.

Se le representaba como guerrero victorioso y gran navegante. Cuando la ciudad se. Adonis era representado en figura de joven admirablemente hermoso. El dios Adonis era representado por una estatua de madera pintada, con una venda ensangrentada al costado.

Although such dating is based on mythical criteria, the truth is that very recent excavations suggest the existence of urban structures. If they do not have similar chronology, at least they are from the ninth century BC. Archaeological evidence placed the foundation of Malaka Malaga between the ninth and the eighth centuries B.

Alongside these colonies, the Phoenicians used minor establishments. The Phoenicians, religiously, began by worshiping stones and trees, which considered divine objects. The sacred stones called methyl, that is to say, the home of God, were hard and black pebbles with conical shape or egg shape, sometimes meteorites fallen from heaven.

Sacred trees were sometimes real, sometimes adorned bronze columns, ending in a cone. The Phoenicians also erected altars made with a large stone and columns of the same material in high places, that is, on top of the mountains. All Phoenicians believed in a god called Baal, that is, the owner, and a goddess called Baalit, which means Lady or Astarte. Baal was the beneficent sun, which illuminated the nature and spread life, but it could also be the burning sun drying plants and causing death. He was portrayed sometimes as a human figure, others like a bull, or a human figure with the head of a bull.

He was thought to be capricious and sanguinary. To satisfy him human beings were beheaded, and they believed that he was particularly pleased if their own children were sacrificed. Baalit, or Astarte, was the moon, the queen of heaven, the goddess of love and spring, which was represented by female figure with a crescent moon overhead.

Interestingly for us, every city had its Baal and Astarte, that the inhabitants worshiped as lords and protectors. The Baal of Tyre was called Baal-Melkart, lord of the city. He was depicted as a victorious warrior and great navigator. His expeditions were told to the Western countries, and the Moroccan mountains that dominated the Strait of Gibraltar were called Columns of Melkart.

Melkart in had an ancient temple in Tyre where there was a huge bright Dama de Galera in theArchaeologicalMuseum in Madrid. There were Melkart temples in almost every city founded by the Tyrians. The Baal of Carthage, also called Moloch, that is to say, the king, was represented by a bronze colossus. When the city was threatened with a great danger, they thought that the Baal was irritated and a great sacrifice was necessary to calm him.

Then the leaders of the city and the people of the richest families took each of them their firstborn son to the foot of the statue. They made a bonfire in which the children were burnt alive to the sound of flutes and trumpets and parents saw it dressed up. The Baal of Byblos, which was also called Adonis, that is, the Lord, had his temple on top of the mountain overlooking the city and also a shrine in Afaka.

Twice a year, in spring and autumn, god worshipers gathered in this place. Adonis was represented with the figure of an admirably handsome young man. It was said that while he was hunting in Lebanon, a jealous god who took the form of a boar killed Adonis. His wife, Astarte, who loved him dearly, had looked him up in the mountain and had found him covered with blood.

She felt at his feet and prayed over the corpse. But God resurrected a few months later. Every year, at the time of the great heats, when the summer kills the spring, it is held a funeral feast at Byblos. In the temple a catafalque stood surmounted by a coffin.

A painted wooden statue represented the god Adonis with a bloodied bandage on the side. They pretended to look for this statue for some time, and then it was found stuck in the coffin. Beside the statue they also put the statue of a boar. They cried to God for a few days and offered sacrifices. Then the statue was buried and put in vessels called 'gardens of Adonis, green branches soon dried in the sun.

Meanwhile women in droves, some of them disheveled and some others with shaved head ran through the streets with tattered clothes, pounding their chest, screaming in pain and scratching their face. Estos grupos eran variados que algunos autores hablan de "religiones" o "cultos griegos", sin embargo la mayor parte de los griegos comparten similitudes religiosas.

Fue influenciada por el sentimiento religioso de los pueblos que ellos conocieron egipcios, persas y chinos. Semidioses griegos: Que vienen a ser hijos de un Dios con una mortal. The Greek Colonization Ancient Greece, apart from the interest in finding metals, had a problem with overpopulation and land scarcity, so colonization was also the exit of its population. Initially Greek colonies the closest to the metropolis had a strong agricultural character and gradually they became essentially commercial colonies.

After the battle of Alalia BC. The circumstances of the founding of the nearby Rhode Rosas could not be established with certainty. The designation of Greek religion encompasses the set of beliefs and rituals practiced by ancient Greece both in the form of popular public religion and private practice of worship. These groups were so varied that some authors speak of "religion" or "Greek cults", however most of the Greeks share religious similarities.

However certain philosophical religions like stoicism and some forms of Platonism advocated a single transcendent deity. Different cities worshiped different deities, sometimes with epithets that specified their local nature. The Greek religion influenced Etruscan cults and beliefs, forming the ancient Roman religion.

Features of the Greek Religion 1. It was polytheistic, because they worshiped many gods 2. It was anthropomorphist, as they assumed their deities had human form, they even attributed to them the same physical and intellectual characteristics. It was a pantheistic cult because they worshiped the forces of nature. It was influenced by the religious sentiment of the people they knew Egyptians, Persians and Chinese. It was not dogmatic, because it did not order any moral precept. III Greek demigods: children of a God with a mortal.

In addition to these gods, the Greeks had gods particularly constituted by their ancestors whom they worshiped and, therefore, had become their personal protective deities. La colonia de Ebusus Ibiza, fundada previamente, en a. No obstante, en el a. A partir de entonces, la importancia que va adquiriendo es cada vez mayor, apareciendo incluso frecuentemente sola en las inscripciones. The role of these establishments was exceeding the mere exchange of grocery products with interior products to exercise real leadership role on local production, mainly the metallurgical dependent mines of Castulo current Linares in the province of Jaen.

The colony of Ebusus Ibiza, previously founded in BC was a strategic settlement for the naval dominance of Carthage in the western Mediterranean; which was not challenged until the first Punic War BC. The Carthaginian defeat did not affect their area of Carthaginian influence in the Iberian Peninsula; rather than limiting it, it was a stimulus for expansion under the political leadership of the powerful Barca family.

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Cartagena was walled and redeveloped and became the main Punic base. The following year, Romans and Carthaginians agreed the so-called treaty of the Ebro, whereby each of the intervening powers renounced across that river. However, in the year BC. Rome assured a Greco-Iberian city located in south of the Ebro Arse, the current Sagunto that they would protect them. Religion was an important aspect of life and culture of the Carthaginians, who, as good Semites, were deeply pious and remarkably conservative in their beliefs and practices.

Their religious universe responded to their Phoenician ancestors, with some influences that were assimilated and reworked, from its Mediterranean environment, particularly Egyptian and Greek. However, its scope was limited and superficial, so we cannot talk about a process of Hellenization of the Punic religion.

The main deity in Carthage was Ba'al Hammon, also testified on the dedications of N. Africa, Sicily, Sardinia and Malta. Originally from the East, some researchers talk about his relationship with fire or heat, "the Lord of the altar of incense" or rather, "the Lord Embers", while others interpret it as "Lord of the Amanus" an atmospheric divinity related to the storm and rain.

All these interpretations of his theonym speak about his rich and complex personality. The subsequent identification with the Roman God Saturn, under whose form survived in North Africa long after the destruction of Carthage, suggests that he was the protector and guarantor of prosperity of the city and at the same time he was related with regeneration aspects and fertilization.

His iconography was that of a bearded god headdress with tiara and seated on a throne. The goddess Tanit was of Eastern origin, although for a long time was believed to be an exclusively African divinity. The absolute supremacy of Ba'al-Hammon, documented in the oldest inscriptions tofet, begins to be displaced from the late fifth century and beginning of the fourth C. Thereafter, the importance that she is acquiring is growing, even appearing frequently by herself in the inscriptions. She is given the epithet "Ba'al face" and in one of the inscriptions we know of the existence of a temple dedicated to Astarte and Tanit Lebanon.

Tanit was a chthonic divinity to whom scatological traits have been attributed. According to G. Garbini, the Carthaginians had adopted the cult of Tanit, hypostasis of Astarte, following the passage from the monarchy, if we admit that it ever existed in Carthage, to the oligarchy, to distance themselves from Tyre, where Melkart was the most important divinity. Others explain the growing popularity of Tanit in Carthage as a result of its conversion into an agrarian state.

It has also been pointed out that the population of sidonio origin who arrived in the city after the Assyrian conquest was responsible for the introduction of worship. Other gods present in the Carthaginian pantheon were Eshmun that along with Astarte, figure heavily in the composition of many Punic theophorous, Ba'al Shamin, Ba'al Haddad and Melkart.

With regard to foreign gods, in the early fourth century, the cult of Demeter and Core was officially introduced between the Carthaginian. They were two Greek gods of fertility and the underworld, as we know from Diodorus of Sicily. Their temples on the outskirts of Syracuse had been desecrated by the troops of Himilcon during its siege in BC. It seems that the gods of Egypt, a country with which frequent and good relations were maintained and whose influence is present in various aspects of the life of Carthage, also had some presence.

La batalla de Cartagena a. Hacia finales del siglo III a. Cada entidad divina representaba las fuerzas de la naturaleza y los sentimientos humanos. Roman Hispania The process of Romanization of Hispania transformed the indigenous structures and involved the integration of these people in the organizational system of political- administrative Rome province, colonia, municipium.

The process of Romanization, much slower than the mere military conquest, also involved acculturation, and linguistically, the Latinization incorporation of Latin not only for administrative purposes but as the commonly used language favouring the exchanges against the multiplicity of pre-Roman languages. Since the site of Sagunto justified the landing in Ampurias BC. The Battle of Cartagena BC. Towards the end of the third century, they had achieved the most developed territorial control of the Iberian area, which was territorially organized into.

The Romanization of this area was the earliest and also the simplest, since it was the most open and historically an area accustomed to the contact with colonizers, which facilitated the assimilation of a new culture. The eastern influence also continued in this area, which remained at the time as a historical phenomenon of long duration, and the presence of people of Syrian origin, Jewish and Punic. In ancient Rome, before the emergence and growth of Christianity, the people followed a polytheistic religion, that is to say, they believed in many gods. These gods, although they were immortal, possessed characteristics and behaviours similar to those of humans evil, goodness, selfishness, openness, strength, revenge and other features present in people , according to the ancient Romans skills also were characteristic of their gods.

According to the Romans, the gods decided the life of mortals. The god Jupiter was the most important. He was considered the supreme deity of the Roman pantheon. Each divine entity represented the forces of nature and human feelings. This religion was absorbed from the Greek pantheon during the invasion and conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire. The Romans only changed the names of the gods and adapted to them to their reality in the Italian peninsula. Below there is a list of major deities of ancient Rome and their characteristics: Evora, roman temple.

Venus represents love and beauty Mars God of War Minerva Goddess of wisdom and knowledge Pluto God of the dead and the underworld Neptune god of the seas and oceans Juno Goddess of motherhood Bacchus god of wine, ecstasy Mercury messenger of the gods, god of commerce Diana Goddess of hunting, chastity, wildlife Ceres Goddess of harvest, agriculture Vulcano God of metals, metallurgy, fire Saturn god of agriculture and harvest Cupid God of love.

Ya a comienzos del siglo IV d. Christianization The year AD is considered as the year the official end of paganism in Hispania. However, despite the efforts of the Christian authorities, both imperial and clerical to suppress any "pagan" manifestation, polytheistic cults persisted long after the fall of Rome and the Germanic invasions of the fifth century in our Peninsula. In vast rural areas of Spain, indigenous ancestral religious cults, syncretized in some cases with elements of Roman polytheism or even mixed promptly, perhaps, with the paganism of Swabians, Vandals and Alans, remained in full force at the time of the Visigoth monarchy, especially among the peasants.

The cities were hotbeds of Christianization. However, people in rural villages remained clinging to their ancestral beliefs, especially in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Hence the term "pagan" people of payments , which was used disparagingly by the clerics to refer to the peasants who remained faithful to their ancestral gods, rejecting the Christian imposition. Even after they were officially "Christianized", they returned to practice their pagan rites on the slightest slip control of the Church or Visigoth authorities.

Priscilliano, bishop of Avila had also condemned polytheism. Prisciliano condemns therefore all forms of "idolatry "which considers" devil worship ". Thus, he confesses, referring to the Spanish-Roman peasants: " At the beginning of the fourth century, when Christianity still did not have the backing of the Roman state, the XLI canon of the Council of Iliberris Granada forced the.

This repressive policy against the Iberian polytheism was continued and extended by the Roman emperors after Christianization and then by the Visigoth kings. In LXXIII it is prohibited to celebrate the calends first day of the month, especially January , or decorate houses with laurel wreaths vegetables etc.

Still in , in the celebration of the XII Council of Toledo, the assembled bishops renewed repression of pagans or polytheists in these terms: Canon XI. Years later, in the canon II of Council XVI of Toledo they are still chasing "the worshipers of idols, the worshipers of stones, lighters of torches, those who worship the sacred places of the fountains and trees, and make themselves augurs and charmers and many other things that would take too long to narrate ".

Examples like these should be very frequent in those gloomy centuries where, our ancestors did not almost have more choice than the conversion to Christianity or death. And yet, the ancestral force of polytheism was able to survive and manifest itself in many ways over the centuries, despite the Judeo-Christian varnish and the brutal repression of the dictates of biblical monotheism.

El lobo es un animal especialmente venerado. Los santuarios, templos o altares de culto no son muy diferentes de las casas. En los rituales se sacrifican animales. Las cenizas del difunto se entierran en una urna, en torno a la que se disponen sus pertenencias y las ofrendas a los dioses. Beliefs and rituals in ancient Iberia: Their beliefs.

It is believed that their most primitive beliefs focused on the worship of natural elements caves, springs, mountains which offered sacrifices, votive offerings and other products to superhuman beings, winged monsters and animals which were sacred symbols related to the funeral rites.

The influence of the Phoenicians and Greeks provided new divinities with a clear oriental inspiration, such as the cult of Serapis, of Egyptian origin a mixture of Osiris and Apis. The Wolf is an especially revered animal. The shrines, temples or altars of worship are not very different from the houses.

Animals are sacrificed in the ritual. Funerary practices are based on a rite of incineration. The ashes of the deceased are buried in an urn, around which are arranged their belongings and offerings to the gods. The Western Mediterranean region, a meeting of polytheistic cultures Indeed, the Iberian Peninsula acted as a melting pot of various polytheistic cultures which all influenced each other, native Iberian , the settlers who founded the commercial enclaves, such as the Greeks or Phoenicians and the peoples who came to be installed here more permanently the Carthaginians and Romans. The fusion of Roman and Iberian mythology In regards to religion, the Peninsula became a genuine puzzle where you could find the great Roman gods Jupiter, Diana, mercury Mixed names along withRoman deities with various epithets revealed the original identity of the God in question.

The tendency was to keep what they had and only occasionally Roman interventions are known to have eliminated the practices considered savage, such as human sacrifices. Others such as Cernunnos orthe deer-God, do not seem to be original beliefs, therefore it is believed that they were adoptedfrom the Iberian culture whilst changingtheir names to assimilate them in the Roman culture.

These types are found in the territories bordering the eastern Mediterranean area and they were thought to be sacred and protectors of man, both the living and the dead. This type of monuments are common in the SE, specifically in the provinces of Alicante, Albacete, eastern Andalusia, south of Valencia and Murcia and it is in shrines or burial sites next to paths. The horse, the lion-dog or wolf , and the bull in the Iberian culture are often linked to the funerary field, and they would relate to magic defense.

An issue to consider would be the relationship animal-man, where we could say that it began the human and the animal iconography in many Iberian sculptures. Some of the sculptures representing animals involved human elements: Centaur, man-headed Bull, Sphinxes, sirens, etc Where does the human and where does the animal beginin these representations? Se esculpe en los escudos, en el peto para que proteja al guerrero. The Wolf For some people the Wolf represents the Warrior ardor and knight worship, the Wolf would also be the guide in the afterlife.

It appears in shields, the breastplate that protect the Warrior. Escultura de Torso de Guerrero con coraza cardiofilax decorado con cabeza de lobo. Museo de la Alcudia Elche - 2. Breastplate decorated with Wolf's head cardiofilax. It is the representation of a myth that tells the overcoming of an obstacle by the hero. It would be therefore the praise of an Iberian Aristocrat, his legitimization through the demonstration of their superiority, both upon the forces of nature, as on the supernatural. The scene that is represented by all the sculptures, and that legitimate the Iberian hero, contains a strong element of ostentation, because it is located in the most visible place of the sanctuary.

This would mean that the whole representation itself would be there to be seen, and so everyone that made the journey between the lands of the Alto Guadalquivir and the Grenadines low lands could appreciate the heroic character of the aristocrat. El guerrero que pretende dar caza al lobo aparece con un brazo en alto posiblemente armado con una falcata y el otro envuelto en una capa para protegerse. Hay testimonios escritos que dicen que esta era la forma en que se cazaban los lobos en esta zona hasta la Edad Media. Mientras, es protegido por leones y grifos.

The warrior who seeks to hunt the Wolf appears with an arm high up, possibly armed with a falcate primitive knife and the other wrapped in a layer to protect it. There are written testimonies that say that this was the way in which they hunted wolves in this area until the middle ages.

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The Warrior, possibly the founding member of a warrior aristocracy, fights against the Wolf to save a young man perhaps a child lying on the floor while he is protected by lions and griffins. Some people see a similarity between this scene and the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur, which is also present in other parts of the Mediterranean.

A God, haloed by Wolf teeth is also represented, or in the mirror necklaceof one of the bidder ladies of the Santos Hill in Albace.

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Finally, it could be possible that the Iberian warriors compared themselves to the efficacy and value of the wolves, since, as the wolves, they serve a boss who has demonstrated its strength. The most prominent warriors swore to serve him in life and in death, to ride with him in visible and hiddenroutes, in a permanent sacrifice of themselves, but also in a celebration of the spirit.

They became supportive men, connected by oaths in front of the infernal gods. Por ello, es normal que figure en espacios funerarios The Bull For the Iberian culture, the bull is symbol of the endurance of life and fertility. Therefore it is normal for it to appear in funerary spaces.

A este contexto, situado en la segunda mitad del s. VII o muy inicios del s. An acceptable theory to make sense of sculptural finds could be: firstly, and although we know that a funeral attribution cannot be ruled out, we would preferably manage the hypothesis that it was a sculpture linked to worship. Its position, sometimes at one of the entrances to the city, would mark a position of special religious significance, in which the animal would symbolize the protective divinity of the population.

There are probably elements dedicated to worship and the reception of offerings, which they would practice before the entrance into the settlement. However thisfigure could also be considered to be part of a sacred set. The presence of the "Bull", along with the presence of decorated ceramics and other material elements, tells us that in the city of Porcuna, for example, eastern ways of life, beliefs, rites and religious expressions were adopted.

The bull must be boundto this context,in the second half of the VII century or very beginning of VI century BC,and understood as a picture or item associated with a female divinity with features close to the goddess Astarte. The Iberian complex of Coimbra, whose time corresponds to the Iberian period centuries IV - II BC that includes a village, a sanctuary and three necropolis is located in the municipality of Jumilla Murcia. The cipo is decorated on three of its sides with relief of riders and a scene of farewell in its fourth side.

Garcia Cano, who has proposed a reconstruction, dates it in the 4th century BC and related it to the funerary monument of the Corral de Saus. The monument of funerary structure which we find in the Corral de Saus is known by the pilar-estela type, whose main characteristic is the stepped base, pillar, capital and a zoomorphic sculpture ending bulls, Lions, Hinds, Sphinxes and sirens It is worth admiring the capital of gola decorated with the "bridesmaids", with grenades and characteristics of the Iberian culture and Mediterranean iconography [ Later the ashes were collected and introduced in a ceramic, which, in turn, was buried in a pit.

Various belongings ceramic vessels of various types, weapons, personal ornaments, food, etc. This whole urn and grave goods was covered in different ways, depending on their social status a simple burial mound of Earth, a pitching of stones, a pyramidal structure topped with a sculpture , and all these types were found in the Corral de Saus. Cipo de los Guerreros de Coimbra del Barranco Ancho — 7. The Horse Horses played a very important role in the ancient Iberian society, in the domestic economy, in the field of religion, at the time of the war and, finally, as a symbol of social status.

The horse has often been thought to have a symbolic duality, linked to the burial world, and the other to the symbolism of the aristocracies, based on the union of the horse with worship to solar deities. Indeed, since the horse was domesticated, their possession has been linked to the ruling classes in the ancient Mediterranean, even before the riding itself, as we can see in the example of the chariots.

La respuesta puede ser amplia ya que puede deberse a muchos factores. The horse is present in the socio-economic changes that are taking place in the Iberian Peninsulaespecially since the bronzeage. But, why the horse has this important role? The main factor is, of course, the high costthat involved breeding and training a horse for riding and for war. In addition, it was a complicated and expensive process as well as its maintenanceIt would also be needed an infrastructure linked with grasses, and a series of constructive elements for the accommodation of the animals.

The horse will be also linked to a series of activities of the aristocracy as hunting or war. It must also be taken into account that this animal is considered to be an animal that denotes strength and nobility, features assimilated by the elites. Los bocados, frontaleras, espuelas, etc. Sources of documentation about the horse in Iberia Archaeological frontaleras, spurs and other elements are well documented in necropolis, sanctuaries and villages, and provide us with valuable information on the technical and functional aspects equestrian practice and also on the social use of the horse spurs appear often as status symbols in the graves.

Horses played an important role in Iberian worship and ritual, as it is proved by very numerous votive offerings of stone or bronze in the form of horses with or without a rider, found in shrines, sometimes specifically dedicated to a horse protective deity. In addition, funeral monumental or memorial sculpture often used horses as an important symbol of status, perhaps of a social group similar to the Greek hippeis or Italianoequites. Casi todas las cecas de la Hispania Citerior, y muchas de la Ulterior, incluyen caballos y jinetes como el tipo principal de reverso.

Horses are highlighted in the Iberian currencies as icons associated with cities or their aristocratic elites. Plenty of ancient sources document the importance of the horse in ancient Iberia, as well as customs related to equestrian practices, military employment and even some myths in which horses play an important role.

Although in very low proportions, the bones of horses are documented in different contexts dumps of villages, sanctuaries, etc. And because of this, the first step is categorize and systematize the available information, to proceed with their study by different specialists. La riqueza de algunas de las tumbas como la ha hecho que de interpreten como principescas. An outstanding discoveryof the Sanctuary are the representations of horses, votive offerings that include horses, mares, foals and asses, richly decorated, where it is possible to appreciate every detail of their harness, with saddle, reins and bridle.

Sarmizegetusa Ulpia was discovered earlier, was known already in the early s, and was initially mistaken for the Dacian capital, a confusion which led to incorrect conclusions being made regarding the military history and organization of the Dacians. Sarmizegetusa Regia contained a citadel and residential areas with dwellings and workshops as well as a sacred zone. The sacred zone — among the most important and largest circular and rectangular Dacian sanctuaries — includes a number of rectangular temples, the bases of their supporting columns still visible in regular arrays.

Perhaps the most enigmatic construction at the site is the large circular sanctuary. It consisted of a setting of timber posts in the shape of a D, surrounded by a timber circle which in turn was surrounded by a low stone kerb. The layout of the timber settings bears some resemblance to the stone monument at Stonehenge in England. Since it is known that Dacian culture was influenced by contact with Hellenisitic Greece, the sundial may have resulted from the Dacians' exposure to Hellenistic learning in geometry and astronomy.

A system of ceramic pipes channeled running water into the residences of the nobility. The archaeological inventory found at the site demonstrates that Dacian society had a relatively high standard of living. Serving as the Dacian capital for at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegethusa reached its zenith under King Decebal.

Archeological findings suggest that the Dacian god Zalmoxis and his chief priest had an important role in Dacian society at this time. They have also shed new light on the political, economic and scientific development of the Dacians and their successful assimilation of technical and scientific knowledge from the Greek and Romans. The Dacians rebuilt them. The Romans systematically destroyed them again in and deported the inhabitants.

The Roman conquerors established a military garrison at Sarmisegetusa Regia. SanctuariesAndesite sanctuariesSolar disk Paved Dacian road The Dacian flag Under the sign of the wolf The wolf -headed dragon with the body of a snake synthesizes within it the whole zamolxian symbolism as both the wolf and the snake are symbols of Principle of Zamolxes which manifested itself in a cycle by splitting into the creative energies, male and female , god and goddess, Apollo and Artemis, appointed by Hermetic caduceus snakes which tend to reunite on top of what medieval philosophers called AOR or full realization of the Great Alchemical Work.

The heads of wolves and snakes were used for the battle flags, and they made a sound that was meant to frighten the enemy, while moving forward. Clear certification of the existence of this flag in relation to the Dacians stands in over 20 images carved on some metopes of Trajan's Column, especially in the fight scenes around the Dacian fortifications or some senior commanders among Dacians.

The flag was carried by a soldier who was called the draconarius. There is a hypothesis, supported by documents, according to which the ancestor of today's flag is the dragon of Burebista and Decebal. This is where we find the main religious trait, common to most ways of relating to the divine, namely the belief in immortality and eternal life. Zalmoxis is the essential deity of the Geto-Dacians, the God of the Other World, of the dead and the living, representing the underworld and life after death.

Among many interpretations of Zalmoxis, the most appropriate is his depiction as a mediator between humans and Gods, and equivalated to Hermes-Mercury in the Greek-Roman Pantheon. Gebeleizis, mentioned by Herodotus, was the god of lightning, thunder, rain, with anthropomorphic depictions as a handsome man, sometimes bearded, using thunder and lightning.

Bendhis was the Moon goddess, of forests and sorcery, the goddess of love and motherhood. Derzis or Derzelas was the god of health and Kotys or Cottyo was the mother-goddess in Thracian-Dacian mythology. The main characteristics of the Dacian religion were: - Zalmoxis occupied the central position; - music played an essential part; - the resurrection principle; -human sacrifice; - the lack of figurative representation of a deity;.

As a Holy City we could think of Sarmisegetusa, the capital of the Geto-Dacian state, which had the roles of sanctuary, spiritual center, metropolis and altar to the Supreme God. An interesting aspect in this religion is the role of the wolf, as a symbol of intelligence, justice and refusal to subordinate. Dacians had as war flags heads of snakes and wolves, crafted in such a manner that they captured wind and amplified sound during battle. The beliefs of the Geto-Dacians as such were essentially Polytheistic, very complex and showing specific rituals and traditions, which had their role in facilitating the implementation of Christianity, as early as the Ist century.

Gebeleizis or Gebeleixis , Nebeleizis — God of lightning, thunder, rain. He was represented as a handsome man with a beard sometimes. Lightning and thunder were his manifestations. The only known ritual that can be linked to Gebeleizis is the archery during the storm. Initially this ritual has been interpreted as a rebellion against the deity, but the revolt was actually in front of clouds that were considered evil forces who wanted to occupy, to remove the power of Uranian God Gebeleizis.

Derzis Derzelas — God of health. Derzelas or Derzis V century and next centuries is the Thracian god of health, with Greek traits. Called "the Great God", it appears in epigraphic evidence, numismatic, archaeological sources from the Histria and Odessos Varna. In this last colony and the walls of Limanu Constanta county , Derzelas is represented on horseback assimilated with the Trac Knight. Kotys is the mother goddess in Thracian mythology being a personification of fertility.

Romanian Traditional Masks. They are performed around religious holidays. People dress up in colorful costumes and perform special dances and music. In the Romanian folk tradition masks are part of traditional celebrations during winter holidays. Masks mark a fantasy world thinking stemming from Romanian traditional society, personifying spirits of ancestors, real or fantastic animals, vegetation or water spirits.

Both in zoomorphic animal and anthropomorphic human images, masks suggest resurrection, fertility, rebirth of vegetation, as a reminiscence of collective memory. But its appearance is the same: a wooden snout making a clicking noise and clothes and adornments of many colors. The dance of the Old Men There should be 12 old men, representing the 12 months of the past year. Anthropomorphic masks are dances and manifestations that come from archaic rituals of honoring the dead. In the rituals for the wake of the dead of South Moldova Vrancea , but also in those of Oltenia, Maramures ,the Unchesilor a colloquial term for old men masks represent the wise elders of the congregation ,who returned to the village to dance during the night vigil.

The meanings of this celebration are linked to passing rites and rebirth. Narciza Marin. The Jewish people from the Israelites who lived in the Fertile Crescent region and the east coast of the Mediterranean and start to grow in early Iron Age. It emerges in the existing peoples between the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates. He took off in the Canaan area was a crossroads of civilizations and more or less corresponds to today territories covering the State of Israel, the West Bank , southern Lebanon and western Syria where have lived the Canaanites and Phoenicians.

The Hebrew Bible present the Israelites as descendants of the same family , divided into twelve independent tribes then federated into a unified kingdom which later split into two kingdoms , the kingdom of Israel and Judah. Archaeology seeks to place the beginnings of their history in the last centuries of the second millennium BC. We fix generally the emergence of this. David succeeds him officially only in his death. He arises from Juda's tribe, and becomes king of twelve tribes of Israel. Then, Salomon, son of David, is king of Israel. The Bible depicts him as king who brings the kingdom to its peak in all the domains.

The country grows rich by the regional exchanges. On the religious plan, Salomon builds the first Temple of Jerusalem. Later his death intervenes a schism which engenders the creation of two Kingdoms : Juda and Israel. Les historiens situe cela vers - , et pensent qu'il dure jusque vers The historians place it towards , and think that it lasts until They often name it kingdom of Samaria or kingdom of the North to differentiate it of Juda's kingdom, in the South.

This kingdom is managed by several successive dynasties. After numerous conflicts with her neighbors of whom mainly Syria and a notable political, economic and demographic development, her population would have achieved up to inhabitants , the kingdom of Israel disappears towards BC with the Assyrian conquest. The disappearance of Juda's kingdom intervenes during a campaign led by Nabuchodonosor II against Jerusalem which it besieges.

The city is plundered and the Babylonian soldiers set on fire the. Temple and the buildings of the city. The kingdom is destroyed and all his population is deported towards the various regions of the Babylonian empire. The refugees meet in Babylon the monotheist zoroastrians and they write the Bible, consisted: - Of their own story - Legends of a glorious past of a big kingdom - Of legends Babylonian as that of king Sargon saved from some waters. The new religion takes back the zoroastrian principle of a unique god but this one elected people, Jewish people, and orders him to return to Canaan and to re-establish the temple of Jerusalem there.

The reconstruction of the second Temple of Jerusalem lasts of BC in av avenues. It is a period of religious reforms and "ethnic cleansing". Several religious groups compete, both for the power and for the determination of the orthodoxy. During this period, a new Jewish religious group - messianiste is born: the Christians who proclaim that Jesus de Nazareth is the Messiah.

This episode is situated in the IIth century BC, between and Inspirators of the revolt against Rome, their movement disappears following the siege of Massada. The capture of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 J. It is the founding element of the Diaspora in the West Diaspora: The term diaspora is an ancient Greek word that means the dispersion of an ethnic community or a people world wide. The first Diasporas of Antiquity are greek: the phocean Diaspora from the city of Phocaea founded around J.

She became very fast, in a context of antijudaisme, synonym for dishonesty, deceit then seriously offensive and loaded with stenches of anti-Semitism. With hindsight, we consider that it contributed to legitimize certain later violence of chretiens against the Jews. In the XIIth century Jewish, Muslim, Christians were associated in the vast movement of translation of Aristote's works which contributed to the renewal of the western thought. But the Roman Empire of east undergoes too the Christian intolerance and more the successive crusades successive often come along de violences against the Jews.

In France,. At the end of the XVe century, the persecutions affect their paroxysm with the Spanish Inquisition, wich sets up a system of purity of the blood limpieza de sangre , and measures against the Marranes which we accuse of pursuing the practice of the Judaism. Judaism is undergoing profound changes from The rabbinic Judaism is the unity of the Jewish people a central point of the Act, and in fact, knows more major changes, except for variations in the different liturgical communities, through, inter alia, in the drafting of legal codes.

Historically the first pogroms took place in the Rhineland in , just before the First Crusade. This is the beginning of a long series of massacres that dot Europe during the Middle Ages. The word pogrom of Russian origin means destroying, plundering.

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It is specifically used in several languages to describe attacks accompanied with plunder and bloodshed against the Jews in Russia, committed by the Christian majority, without reaction of the authorities or with their approval. Similar violence, but more limited scale, arise at the same time in Germany, in Austria, in Romania and in the Balkans. During the invation of Poland-Lituania between and they undergo new massacres from Tsarist armies then, after annexation of a large part of Poland by Russia.

Antisemitic violence still held in Odessa in , and The 2nd August , anti-Jewish riots start in Bavaria. They speard in Germany during the summer , when the crowd plunder Jewish houses and shops. In France, antisemitic pogroms take place till February at the time of the last pogroms that unfolded in Haut- Rhin. Between and , Russia was the place where about twenty major and minor pogroms, reportedly made 60 dead.

In Germany, the Nazi Party of Hitler institutionalizes pogroms and other acts. The laws of Nuremberg promulgated on September 15th, declare the Jews deposed of the German nationality this anti- semitic politics is the prelude will be of the pogrom of crystal night on November 9th, Near hundred Jews 7 stores will be killed, hundred burned synagogues and stores are plundered.

Dans le monde arabe et musulman, les Juifs qui ont un statut de dhimmi subissent plusieurs pogroms. In the Arab and Muslim world, the Jews who have a status of dhimmi undergo several pogroms. In Palestine pogroms take place accompanied with plunders of rapes and with destruction. The emancipation is translated by a series of legislative acts by which states recognized the citizenship to the Jews.

The Jews are recognized as French citizens by the Revolution, following two decrees, one of January 28th , and other one of September 27th , In France, the equality of rights was confirmed under Napoleon Ier. In the rest of Europe, the emancipation which was made in the XIXth century, drove to the disappearance at least formal ghettos and in the equality of opportunity for the Jews, in Western Europe and in America. The early prisoners, driven out by Russian and backed by rich Western donors pogroms, dry swampy areas where they could settle in the coastal plain of Palestine,thn under Ottoman sovereignty.

But immigration to Palestine of Jews sceptically "assimilated" Western European and the opposition of mostOrthodox rabbis, not to mention the supporters of a new Israel in NorthAmerica. November 2, , the British government published the Balfour Declaration. It isaddressed to Lord Walter Rothschild , eminence of the British Jewish community and financial of the Zionist movement, for retransmission. By that letter, the UK is in favor of the establishment in Palestine of a Jewish national home.

This statement is considered as one of the first steps in the creation of the State of Israel. The politicalupheavals in Europe, stemmingfrom the dislocation of Russian empires, Austro-Hungarian, German and Ottoman, willsoonbeexacerbatedwith the rise of fascistmovements and regimes and anti-Semitic, leading to the Holocaust. On recense un peu moins de 2 millions de Juifs morts par ce que l'on appelle la Shoah par balles. The Nazi regime came to power in , take early action against the Jews.

From to , the Soah is 6 millions dead and countless physical, psychological and family. Reported slightly less than 2 million sdead Jews in what is called the Soah by bullets. In France, the Vichy regime establishes a special status for Jews, that removes certain functions, then collaborated in the deportation of 75, of them. On November 29th , the United Nations General Assembly approves the Plan of Partition of Palestine in a Jewish State and an Arab state, the zone of Jerusalem, called separatum corpus, acquiring the status of international city.

The Jewish part accepts this territorial division but the Palestinian authorities and Arab states reject them. Since its independence in , the State of Israel was involved in several armed conflicts with the nearby Arab countries: mainly Egypt and Jordan with whom it signed peace treaties but it stays in conflict with Syria and Lebanon and Palestinians who do not recognize its borders, or even its right by the existence as the Hamas as well as the Lebanese Shiite movement the Hezbollah supported by Iran. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Jewish people live in to main different places in the world.

The Jewish community is also present in Western Europe, in France with approximately people. Eastern European traditional communities including Russia, have become less numerous and Jewish communities in Arabic countries have almost disappeared. Outside Israel, Jewish communities have rapidly integrated other communities thanks to intermarriage. Another reason for the decrease is the emigration of Jewish people, back to Israel because of growing anti-Semitism in some countries.

The Tanakh the Hebraic Bible states that this name was first heard by Moses on top of Mount Horeb in the Sinai desert, during the episode of the burning Bush. The ban to pronounce the proper noun of God does not only concern the Jews, but also former Christians, who may not have known his its pronunciation. There is usually a sanctuary in every synagogue; It is a big prayer hall in which books of the Torah can be found. There can also be room for community events. However, there are small rooms especially intended to study, or Beit midrash "Study House".

Even if synagogues were initially used as places of worship, they were gradually transformed during the Jewish history into the Talmud Torah places where Hebrew language and tradition are taught; both for adults and children. The menorah is a specifically religious symbol which also refers to Israel The menorah was one of the objects in the temple of Jerusalem, which disappeared after the second destruction of the temple by the Romans. The menorah is a seven branched candelabrum which was always lit according to the tradition.

The menorah was then lit for more than fifteen centuries. According to the Exodus, God asked Moses to make a candelabrum made of pure gold and of only one part. IT had to be put in the tent of meeting in the desert, to stand for the never-ending relation between God and his people. Later it became part of the temple of Jerusalem. The menorah is located south, to the left-side of the entrance opposite the table of showbread. In everyday life, the shawl is a big piece of cloth covering shoulders or around the neck or even on the head just like a veil.

Indeed, The tallit is the Jewish prayer shawl. It has four corners and every corner has fringes "tsitsi ". It contains the tablets of the law such as it was written by God when Moses was on Mount Sinai. In ancient time, this star had no particular name. He called it Magen David and introduced it in the third blessing read in synagogues. During the Thirty Years War , it became the strong symbol of redemption in Kabalistic circles.

This symbol was then spread in Jewish communities worldwide. As it was imposed by the Nazis as a. The Zionist movement made it its main symbol. Yom Kippur, also called the Day of Atonement, is a Jewish celebration considered as the holiest of the Jewish year. On the tenth day of the month of tishri, in Israel as well as in Diaspora, Yom Kippur represents the culmination point of penitential period lasting ten or forty days if it is inaugurated in Roch Hachana or in the month of eloul.

It takes place, from year to year, in September or in October in the Gregorian calendar. One must not work or eat. Yom Kippur is alsomarked by other rites of mortification. Five prayer services, numerous liturgical compositions, confessions and other rites like non-speech strengthen the austere and solemn atmosphere. According to the rabbinical tradition, during this consecration the miracle of the cruse of oil occurs, allowing the priests of the Temple to burn during eight days a hardly sufficient quantity of oil for one day.

It is celebrated on 25th Kislev which approximately corresponds, November or December according to the Gregorian calendar. It lasts eight days, until 2nd or 3 rd Tevet according to the length of Kislev month: 29 or 30 days. Traditions and habits are linked to the miracle of the cruse of oil, in particular the lighting of the candles of the nine branch-candelabrum of Hanukkah during the eight days of the celebration and the consumption of olive-based sweets such as latkes, soufganiyot, etc. We also play with four faced spinning tops. This celebration commemorates the Hebrew exodus out of Egypt for 40 years in the desert.

The celebration lasts 8 days. We eat specific dishes : bitter herbs referring to the bitterness of slavery , some salt water referring to tears of children of Israel , of unleavened bread, raw vegetables, a mixture with apples and crushed walnuts referring to the mortar used by the Hebrew slaves , a bone with a some grilled meat referring to the sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb at the time of the Temple of Jerusalem and a boiled egg referring to the destruction of the Temple.

Sabbath Hebrew: cessation is the day of assigned rest on the seventh day of the Jewish week, on Saturday, which begins on Friday evening nightfall, and finish to the Saturday evening night. Sabbath is the Jewish essential principle. Land mammals Only ruminants with cloven hooves are considered as being pure. Ten are quoted: the beef, the sheep, the goat, the deer, the gazelle, the ibex, the antelope, the oryx and the mouflon. All other mammals without one or both of these characteristics are missing are impure, and therefore forbidden.

It is the case of the camel, the rabbit and the daman. Indeed, they are ruminants but without cloven hooves. This is also the case for the pork which has cloven hooves but does not ruminate. Birds Birds are pure except for 24 species considered impure: the eagle, the ostrich, the pelican, the stork, the owl etc. Yet, domestic birds are pure hens, quails, ducks, geese etc. And wild birds and in particular birds of prey are impure.

Certain ducks can be consumed after identification of the species by an expert. The pheasant is considered as pure by the German Jewish community, and impure by the others. Eggs of impure birds are impure. The Talmud tells eggs are impure because they are round. Marine animals Only those with fins and scales are pure.

All marine animals without one or both elements are impure shellfish. The swordfish raised a conflict. Sephardis allow it, while it is forbidden for English Ashkenazis. All other sorts All other sorts like rodents, reptiles, batrachians, insects and invertebrates are impure. Although the bee is a forbidden. Land Products Land Products are pure except for fruits considered as orlah. Drinks Fruit and vegetable juices, just like fruits and vegetables, are used for consumption. Wine and wine-based alcohol like Cognac is pure products and can be consumed.

But the Torah forbids the consumption of drinks coming from grapes or alcohol of grape as well as any product of the press which would not have been made under the control of a confirmed rabbi, or which would have been treated by a non-Jew. This is also the case for vinegar, grape seed oil or grape-sugar. The first written reference we have of this term belongs to Ignatius of Antioch. It is the Christian Church which accounts for the greatest number of faithful members, and it is the most ancient related to Christian denominations.

Several other Catholic Churches derive from its roots within the Christian Church. The major distinguishing feature of Catholic Church is a recognition of the Pope as the maximum religious authority in the world. Bautismo: paso por el cual entras en la familia iglesia. Mass: the sharing out of the bread and the wine, the Body and Blood of Christ. Marriage: Considered as a union between two people to form a family. Confirmation: to receive the Holy Spirit.